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Diamonds Under the Scope

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Diamond Inclusions: Diamonds are formed deep under the earth’s surface for millions of years under extreme heat and pressure. Naturally, this give rise to a number of imperfections inside a diamond, which are called inclusions, as well as on its surface, which are called blemishes. When viewed under a 60X or a 120X microscope, the inclusions of a diamond reviewed a fascinating world.

The article below is written by Sharon Bohannon of GIA and is reposted here from www.gia.edu

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Diamonds Under the Scope

Another world exists in gemstones when they are viewed through a microscope. Landscapes and whimsical creatures appear to come to life as you explore a gem’s internal features and formations.
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Inclusions spin a tale of provenance and tell of the diamond’s journey from deep within the earth to the surface. They are a geological time capsule that tells a story of a gem’s formation. Feather inclusions in a diamond, for example, can be indicative of a rough ride from the earth’s mantle to the surface. These birthmarks are signs of a diamond’s natural origin and make your diamond unique in the world.

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In 1645 an Englishman saw a red crystal inclusion (probably a garnet) in a diamond belonging to a Venetian nobleman by the name of Rugini. This discovery sparked an interest in colored crystal “guest” minerals or inclusions in diamond. A number of crystal mineral inclusions have been reported since then.

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Inclusions impart character, beauty and essence to their host gems.

Dr. Edward J. Gübelin  

The renowned Swiss gemologist Dr. Edward J. Gübelin (1913-2005) built a legacy on the study and systematic classification of the internal world of gemstones. His research demonstrated the importance of these internal features in determining a gem’s identity.

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John I. Koivula, GIA’s analytical microscopist and long time chief research gemologist, wrote to Dr. Gübelin as a teenager, sending along his first photomicrographs (photos taken through a microscope). This began a collaboration that would culminate in the three-volume “PhotoAtlas of Inclusions in Gemstones,” landmark works that established the importance of inclusions as an aid to identifying gemstones. Their photomicrographs of inclusions illustrate common features in gemstones from particular localities. Their richly illustrated tomes also help separate natural from synthetic or treated gemstones, including diamonds.

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Diamonds present some of the most striking inclusions to view under the microscope and host a variety of gemstone guest crystals. Some of the most frequently found are pyrope garnet, olivine or peridot, diopside, chrome-spinel, and much less frequently, ruby and sapphire. Diamond crystals are also frequently seen as inclusions within diamond itself.

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The study and documentation of inclusions in diamond has inspired poetic and descriptive names: feather, cloud, halo, knot, needle, bearding and pinpoint.  With magnification, these scenes are clues to the natural origin of a diamond and give you a renewed appreciation for its characteristics and qualities. The possibilities of what you can see in these photomicrographs is almost endless.

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I am a Graduate Gemologist trained at the Gemological Institute of America (GIA) in New York City, USA. I hold an MBA degree from Cranfield University, United Kingdom, and a Bachelor degree in Mathematics. My earlier profession was a banker until I found jade in Myanmar (Burma) in the early 90s. I have traveled to the fabled Hpakan Jade mines, and Mogok, the world’s famous rubies and sapphires mines in upper Burma, with my second son. Three of my children are also Graduate Gemologist, GIA, NYC and they deal in diamonds, gemstones and jade. 我是在美国纽约市的美国宝石学院(GIA)接受过培训的宝石研究学家。 我拥有英国克兰菲尔德大学的工商管理硕士学位和数学学士学位。我以前的职业是银行家,直到90年代初我在缅甸接触到玉石。我曾经和我的次子一起去过缅甸上流传说中的哈帕翡翠矿山和莫谷矿山, 莫谷矿山是世界上著名的红宝石和蓝宝石矿山。我的三个孩子都是纽约市GIA毕业的宝石研究学家, 他们专门处理钻石,宝石和玉石.